• First Americans probably did not come from Siberia

    By James Sved on June 7, 2017

    CHARLOTTESVILLE, VA (Herald de Paris) — Mitochondrial DNA analysis along the human genome in 2014 has revealed that members of some native North American tribes share a maternal ancestry, haplogroup X, which is linked to the maternal ancestors of some present-day individuals in western Asia (And possibly Western Europe), albeit distantly. This has also provided some support for pre-Clovis models.

    More specifically, a variant of mitochondrial DNA called X2a found in many Native Americans has been traced to western Eurasia, while not being found in eastern Eurasia.

    The prevailing theory, the so-called Clovis Paradigm, says that the first Americans arrived on our continents via the Bering land bridge, from Siberia.  This was first proven with the discovery of stone tools, and later supported by biological evidence.  However, there are several problems with this hypothesis.  Whatever date this migration is given, it is universally agreed that it occurred before the thawing of the last ice age, which culminated approximately 9,000 years ago.

    Therein lies the problem.

    Over the course of 5,000 years, during the recession of the polar caps and the melting of the North American Glacier, so much ice melted that it gave rise to the Great Lakes; it carved out the mighty Mississippi River; it lowered the global salination levels of our oceans; it raised the seal level in excess of 120m (360 feet) and re-shaped all of Earth’s coastal shores.

    At its peak, the Northern Ice Sheet reached as far south as Chicago.  It also covered parts of Russia, China, Asia, and Europe.

    The first problem with the Trans-Siberian crossing theory is that it seems highly improbable that primitive nomadic hunters could survive the harsh conditions of a glacial overpass, let alone one when the Northern Ice Sheet was more than twice its current size.  The second and more important issue with this theory is that while haplogroup X may emanate from western Asia, the Bering land bridge crossing could not have been undertaken by ancient Siberians as Siberia, like all of Canada and parts of both Europe and Asia, all sat under the mountainous Northern Ice Sheet, at that time.  haplogroup X may contain the common DNA tying Western Eurasians to modern Native American tribes, but they couldn’t have gone Northward, over land and ice, to arrive in the Americas.

    It seems more likely that the same Western Eurasians that ended up in the Americas also later migrated northward and eastward into Siberia long after the ice sheet receded, thus explaining the connection between Siberian and Native American DNA.

    How then did the first humans arrive in the Americas?

    If you dial back the Earth to a period before the North American Glacier melted and lowered the global sea level by 120m, what emerges in the South Pacific Ocean is a larger chain of volcanic islands.  It is possible then to hypothesize that ancient Eastern Eurasians could have island hopped all the way to Chile.  Why the tip of South America?  Island hopping from Southwestern Asia to Australia and New Zealand is easy.  East of New Zealand, the Pacific current flows directly to Chile.  As we learned when Columbus headed off to India and instead landed on Hispaniola Island in the Caribbean, even if you get lost, the ocean currents will eventually take you to land.

    Some of the oldest verified sites of human remains in the Americas are found in South America, and many are in Chile.  And even if the ancestors carrying haplogroup X did not migrate to South America across the great expanse of the Pacific by sea, there is a possibility they could have waked the Southerly route.  Just as the Bering land bridge once connected Siberia to Alaska, so, too, there were land bridges connecting New Zealand, Antarctica, and South America.  While it remains to be proven that this southerly footpath was accessible, recent study of orbital and axial changes in the Earth, which certainly contributed to the melting of the Northern ice more than the Antarctic ice, seem to open the door to the possibility of a southerly footpath to the Americas.

    Clovis must die as a benchmark.  The nearly 100-year old paradigm which claims that ancient Eurasians chased the Wooly Mammoth from central Asia all the way to New Mexico 12,000 years ago seems more improbable every day.  The mastodon were genetically equipped to survive the long frozen migration.  Humans carrying the ancient haplogroup X DNA were not, and certainly not in the numbers to populate two continents so rapidly.  In the last 75 years, sufficient radiocarbon and DNA evidence has been uncovered in both North and South America to suggest that haplogroup X and X2a arrived much earlier.

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    MORE FROM THIS AUTHOR:  Vast Undersea Acres Unstudied [<–Cliq!]

    HELP FUND THIS IMPORTANT RESEARCH:  https://experiment.com/projects/did-the-first-humans-arrive-in-the-americas-by-sea-in-southern-chile-and-not-across-the-bering-straits

     


    Comments
    Rich June 7, 2017

    Fascinating.Great research. Bang on. What is next? Is a University funding further research of yours?

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